* Indicates an item included in the
Other items are available from the
course website. Note that some posted items are copyrighted and thus
accessible only via a paid subscription. UCSD Libraries offer you
access to these materials, but you must be using a UCSD computer or
accessing the site through a proxy server or Virtual Private Network.
Please see computing or library staff for assistance.
to this week's readings***
I. Basic Tools:
Collective Action and Delegation
Reading: Review this syllabus before
class, but I promise no cold-calling about its contents! (There may be
some practice cold-calling about general topics, though these will not
be counted for or against your participation grade.
2. Collective Action
Reading: *Mancur Olson, The
Logic of Collective Action, Public Goods and the Theory of Groups,
pp 5-16, 33-36, 46-48, 132-135, 165-167.
Key questions: What is a public
good, and why do they tend to be undersupplied? How do groups organize?
What is the free-rider problem, and how can it be overcome? Why do some
groups remain "latent"?
Key concepts: Lobby groups, interest
groups, free rider, latent group
Homework due by 9:00 a.m. (The
question will be posted at the PMP website announcements page.
3. Delegation and the
Question of Who Has Ultimate Authority
*Roderick Kiewiet and Mathew
McCubbins, The Logic of Delegation, Chapter 2.
Key questions: What problems does
organizational structure solve? What problems does it create? How are
the problems created by delegation mitigated within an organizational
Key concepts: Principals, agents,
4. Delegating from
Voters to Representatives: Overview of Major Alternative Electoral
Today you will select your own PIASO
representatives via STV!
And today, voters in the Canadian
province of Ontario will be deciding whether to change their future
elections to MMP (see Web reading below)
*Arend Lijphart, Patterns of
Democracy, pp. 144–64.
Resources for understanding electoral rules (consider
these part of your required reading):
- Learn about instant runoff
voting (IRV) and see the ballot
used for an IRV election in San Francisco.
- Read about STV in Ireland, and a proposal for STV in British
Columbia (on the site at that link, scroll down to the item “About
BC-STV”; the fact sheet and animation, linked at the upper right of the
page are also useful); view the ballot used to elect the city council
of Cambridge, Massachusetts by STV (and note the
instructions to voters).
- Read about Ontario’s
referendum today and its proposed “MMP” system.
Key concepts: Plurality (First-past-the-post),
majority, runoff (two-round or “instant”), proportional representation
(PR), single transferable vote (STV), district magnitude.
Note on sources: The www.fairvote.org
site is hosted by an advocacy group and its being referenced in this
syllabus does not necessarily represent endorsement of the
Democracy’s Delegation Chain: Voting, Representative Institutions, and
5. “Engineering” the Representation
of Interests: James Madison and the Federalist Papers
1. The Federalist Papers, Nos. 10 & 51; Also recommended: No. 73.
2. *Kernell & Jacobson, The Logic of American Politics,
pp. 50-58 (“Drafting a New
3. On a recent policy controversy: House Passes Children's Health Bill, and Message to the House of Representatives, October 3,
Key Questions: What were the problems with the
Articles of Confederation? What solutions did Madison propose? How does
the US Constitution differ from Madison’s proposal? What is meant by
“popular sovereignty,” “extended republic,” and “faction”? How has the
US Constitution shaped policy-making in the Children’s Health Care
controversy, and how might other institutional designs shaped it
Constitutional Systems: How the Structure of Agents and How They are
(S)elected Affects How the Voters’ Authority is Delegated
1. *Matthew Soberg Shugart, “Executive–Legislative Relations in
Post-Communist Europe,” Transition, Dec. 13, 1996.
2. *Matthew S.R. Palmer, "Toward an
Economics of Comparative Political Organization: Examining Ministerial
Responsibility," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization.
Thinking in terms of the delegation of authority,
how do presidential and parliamentary systems structure authority
differently? What does it mean to differentiate systems on the origin
and survival of executive authority? What do the terms Westminster
model and majoritarian parliamentary system mean? It is often
said that the executive cabinet is dominant in a Westminster system,
but how can that be?
Collective Action, and Political Parties
1. G. Bingham Powell, Jr., “Political Representation in
Comparative Politics,” Annual Review of Political Science,
2. Germany: New Government Pact Finally in Place
(Deutsche Welle, 13 November, 2005).
3. Take a quick look at Political
Compass. (Optional: Take the 'test'
Recommended: The posts of
13 June and 27 May on the Irish election of 2007 at Fruits &
Key questions: How are voters’
collective interests represented differently in PR and majoritarian
(e.g. plurality) systems? What difference does the electoral system
make to the way authority is delegated under parliamentary
government? What is the role of geography and districting arrangements
in structuring the delegation relationship between voters and their
Key concepts: Proportionality vs.
responsiveness, marginal or “swing” districts, party label.
Administration: Delegation from Politicians to Bureaucrats
*Terry M. Moe and Michael Caldwell,
"The Institutional Foundations of Democratic Government: A Comparison
of Presidential and Parliamentary Systems."
Key questions: How, according to the
authors, do bureaucratic structures differ in Britain and the United
States? What is the logic of delegation that explains the different
structures that we see in different forms of democratic systems? Why
are bureaucrats given more "autonomy" in Britain and why does the
American bureaucracy operate under such strict procedures?
9. Policymaking in a
Parliamentary System: Economic and Electoral Reform in New Zealand
1. Daniel Nielson, "The Politics of Economic Reform in
New Zealand" (IR/PS case study)
2. Royce Carroll, "New Zealand Politics: The
Multiparty Era" (IR/PS case study)
items regarding 2005 elections and politics of the current government
(These short items are not required reading, per se, but glancing at
them will help you understand the 2005 election and the formation of
the current government.
1. Confidence and supply agreements
as stated by the Labour Party, New Zealand First, and United Future
2. Green Party statement
on the government
3. New Zealand First delivers for
Short paper due by 9:00 a.m. (topic
have been posted at the PMP Conference on First Class. The
question for Part 1 was posted October 30; the question for Part 2 was
posted November 1.)
10. Policymaking in a
Parliamentary System: Majority-Party Coordination and Reform in Japan
1. Masuhiko Tatebayashi and Margaret McKean, "Vote
Division and Policy Differentiation of LDP Members under SNTV/MMD in
Japan" (tables in xls)
coverage of the 2005 election.
3. Additional recent news briefs will
be posted at the Conference.
Key questions: Why did the Liberal
Democratic Party need its candidates to differentiate themselves under
SNTV? What are the different strategies used by various LDP members to
adapt to the incentives of SNTV, and why? What is the significance of
the way the LDP organized itself? How have the incentives changed under
the new electoral system?
November 12: No class
(US national holiday)
First-half review and discussion
Brief presentation, with opportunity
for students to ask questions about material covered thus far.
12. IN-CLASS MIDTERM
Room may be different from the
regular classroom; see the Announcements page as the date
nears . It is very important that students
pace themselves in order to finish a long exam in 80 minutes.
change: The topics for Nov. 21 and 26 have been changed
Adding Institutional and Societal Complexity: Presidentialism,
Federalism and Multi-ethnic Politics in the Developed and Developing
Multiple Levels of Delegation and Policy-Making
*Alfred Stepan, “Toward a New Comparative Politics
of Federalism, (Multi)Nationalism, and Democracy: Beyond Rikerian
Federalism,” in Stepan, ed., Arguing Comparative Politics
Key questions: What is the significance of
federalism? What does Stepan mean by "demos-constraining" federalism?
What institutions and party characteristics influence to the degree to
which a federation is demos-constraining?
in a Presidential System: Delegating for Trade Policy in the United
1. * I. M. Destler, American
Trade Politics, ch. 6 (Washington D.C.: Institute for
International Economics, 1992).
Brainard and Hal Shapiro, "Fast Track Trade Promotion Authority,"
Brookings Institution Policy Brief #91, December, 2001.
3. News items on the US steel trade
dispute, 2002-03 and 2004.
4. Possibly an additional brief
trade-policy update (which would be posted at the Conference)
Key questions: Why did the U.S. Congress delegate trade policy
authority to the executive branch? What political problems did
members of congress solve for themselves by delegating? What
controls did congress, as principal, place on its agent in trade
policy-making? Does this delegation make a difference in the
policy that results?
Federalism, the National Budget, and the Supreme
Court: The Case of Mexico
Primary reading: Mónica
Pachón-Buitrago and Matthew Søberg Shugart, "Turf wars in Mexico: Battles between
Congress and the Executive," IR/PS Case Study.
Second short paper due by 9:00 a.m.
Paper topic and some related news updates
will be posted at the Conference.
IV. The Political
Institutions of Authoritarian Systems
16. Institutions and Delegation in
Authoritarian Systems: The Case of China
1. *Susan Shirk, "Reciprocal Accountability and
Delegation by Consensus."
2. Gang Lin and Susan Shirk, eds., The 16th CCP Congress and
Leadership Transition in China. Required readings are the Introduction (pp. 1-4) and articles by Shirk (pp. 5-9) and Miller (pp. 10-14). The rest is recommended. Note in particular the useful table on the leaders that appears on pp. 45-6).
Key questions: How does the logic of delegation work in
authoritarian systems, and particularly in the Leninist system of
China? What is reciprocal accountability, and how is it different
from hierarchical accountability? Who are the principals in
China, and who are the agents? (There has been a new Party Congress since the Congress discussed in the articles of the Lin and Shirk edited collection of articles. The final exam will include questions about this recent Congress, based in part on news updates that will be provided after this session.)
17. Course Wrap-up
Readings and other information about our final session will be posted at the PMP Conference.
Final examination, 11:30 to 2:30
Further information will be posted at the PMP Conference